Richard David James (born 18 August 1971), better known as Aphex Twin and less prominently as AFX,[nb 1] is an Irish-born British musician, composer and DJ. He is best known for his idiosyncratic work in electronic styles such as techno, ambient, and jungle. Music journalists from publications including Mixmag, The New York Times, NME, Fact, Clash and The Guardian have called James one of the most influential or important artists in contemporary electronic music.
Raised in Cornwall, James began DJing at free parties and clubs in the area in the late 1980s, and later at venues around the West Country. His debut EP, Analogue Bubblebath, was released in 1991 on Mighty Force Records. It brought James acclaim and a cult following; he began to perform at techno clubs and raves across the UK and continental Europe. James co-founded the independent label Rephlex Records the same year.
James's 1992 debut album Selected Ambient Works 85–92, released by Belgian label Apollo, garnered wider critical and popular appreciation. That year, he also appeared on the influential Warp Records compilation Artificial Intelligence. He signed to Warp the following year and subsequently released charting albums such as ...I Care Because You Do (1995) and Richard D. James Album (1996), as well as Top 40 singles "On" (1993), "Come to Daddy" (1997), and "Windowlicker" (1999). With music videos directed by Chris Cunningham, "Come to Daddy" and "Windowlicker" brought James significantly wider international attention.
After releasing Drukqs in 2001, James spent several years releasing music on his own Rephlex label, including the 2005 Analord EP series, and a pair of 2007 releases under the alias the Tuss. In 2014, he made available a previously unreleased 1994 LP as Caustic Window. He returned later that year with the album Syro, which won the Grammy Award for Best Dance/Electronic Album. He has since released charting EPs including Cheetah (2016) and Collapse (2018).
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